History of the
Commercial Internet in Armenia started using analog lines of VNIIPAS in 1992. In 1993, the first Armenian web server www.arminco.com was installed, the server was running UNIX SCO (sysadmin E.Danelyan, company ARMINCO, Director A.Aleksanyan, technical director G.Saghyan. In the same year, the Yerevan Institute of Physics (Director R. Mkrtchyan) installed a space communication station and an independent telecommunications channel with the Internet. Coordination of the project was carried out by M. Cardonsky and E. Prokhorenko. In 1996, the company INFOCOM (Ministry of Communications), headed by David Rostomyan, established a connection with the Canadian Internet provider - TELEGLOBE with a capacity of 128 kbit/s, and the system administrator - Emin Gabrielyan.
The first Internet domains of Armenia were registered before the appearance of the own domain zone AM - in the COM TLD. It should be noted that at that time most countries did not manage their domain names, and the right to manage the domain name was determined by a simple rule - whether the country has technical and intellectual capabilities of running its own domain name. As it turned out, Armenia had such an opportunity. Practical realization of the right to own the national domain name becomes possible after the founders of the American University of Armenia, Mihran Agbabian, Armen Ter-Kyureghyan and representatives of the diaspora, Richard Huat and Ruben Nalbandian, sent the Director of the Information Department of the AUA, Igor Mkrtumyan, to the first Internet conference - INET93 , where the main requirements were announced for organizations that have the right to conduct national domains - unification of country's Internet users into an organization that could represent their interests and speak on their behalf in the international organizations. At the same conference a provision was approved that the national Internet community of a given country should take part in the management of the national domain.
Immediately after INET93 an initiative group was formed, which included well-known figures representing the entire spectrum of the Internet communities of Armenia: A. Aleksanyan, G. Saghyan (ARMINCO), R. Mkrtchyan, A. Toneyan, K. Hovhannisyan, R. Gevorgyan (YERFI) , Y. Shukuryan, S. Shukuryan, V. Sahakyan (NAS), T. Zargaryan (Medical Institute), T. Nazaryan (United Nations), K. Erznkanyan (Institute of Radiophysics), A. Nazaryan (Institute of Laser Technique), L. Peshtmaljyan, H. Vahanyan (Constitutional Court of Armenia), E. Danielyan, S. Stepanyan (ARMINCO), Anna Karakhanyan and others.
The initiative group developed a Charter of the Internet Society (www.isoc.am), adopted it in 1995 and registered the organization in the Ministry of Justice of Armenia. I. Mkrtumyan was elected as the president of the organization, and V.Sahakyan, G.Sagiyan, A.Toneyan and A.Nazaryan as vice-presidents. Members of the society were representatives of universities and institutes, the Academy of Sciences, media, banks, service providers, schools, colleges, humanitarian organizations. Membership in the society is open to all who wish to share the universal values that underlie modern civilization.
The management of the Armenian domain is one of the main activities of ISOC AM, and the delegation of these rights was carried out by J. Postel, a person whose scale is yet to be realized and appreciated by the next generations.
At the 3rd World Internet Conference (INET95) for negotiations were carried out on providing these rights to the Internet Society of Armenia. As a result of negotiations, the head of the IANA, John Postel, agreed to delegate the Internet top-level domain .AM to ISOC AM, which came into force in 1996.
Upon receipt of the rights to administer the AM domain AM zone, its administration was transferred to the Armenian Network Information Center (AMNIC, www.amnic.net), which was created and operated by ARMINCO. Currently, AMNIC operates within the ISOC AM, has its own Autonomous System and directly manages the Armenian domain.
Establishment of AMNIC was mainly the merit of E. Danielyan, a high level professional, the author of a number of books on the security of operating systems, computer networks and systems, and his deputy, H. Dadivanyan.
The development of the Internet led to the creation in 1998 of ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers), in the management of which IANA functions were transferred. The transfer of management was carried out gradually from 1998 to 2000. ICANN decided that administrators of national domains confirm ICANN's responsibility for Internet governance through the exchange of accountability framework letters, and ICANN, in turn, confirms the rights to manage national domains. In 2007 the exchange of letters between ICANN and RA was held.
Gagik Grigoryan, the head of the department of external relations of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Armenia, was appointed a representative to the Governmental Advisory Council in the ICANN (GAC) by the RA. He also became a member of ISOC AM Board.
In 2000 ISOC AM became a member of the Council of European National Level Domain Registries (Council of European National Top Level Domain Registries,CENTR).
In 2008 The Armenian was admitted to the ccNSO, a division of ICANN, which unites national domain managers.
In 2007, the ISOC AM became the Armenian branch of the World Internet Society (ISOC). Ya. Gaevsky and V. Markovsky recommended ISOC AM for registration as ISOC chapter.
In 2009, a cooperation agreement was signed between the Ministry of Transport and Communication of the Republic of Armenia and ISOC AM.
One of the main goals of the ISOC AM is to provide a reliable and stable national Internet infrastructure, namely the national domain name servers. The work of the Armenian segment of the Internet depends on this. The ISOC AM carries out continuous work on the modernization of the Armenian segment infrastructure, the introduction of new standards for its security (DNSSEC) and the new version of IPv6 addressing, as well as the creation of parallel servers for the national domain zone .AM.
The ISOC AM carried out a number of projects on the development of the Internet in Armenia. In particular, under the grants of the Eurasia Foundation and the Open Society Institute (OSI). A training center was established in the ISOC AM on the grant of the Eurasia Foundation. According to grants of OSI ISOC AM trained about 700 network administrators for schools in Armenia, where computer centers connected to the Internet were created by OSI grants and Project Harmony.
Based on the OSI grant, managers and staff were trained for 20 telecentres (Intranet public centers) established by OSI in the regions of Armenia.
Also, as part of the OSI grant, the society participated in the e-rider movement (mobile consultants), providing technical assistance to NGOs, libraries and schools in the regions of Armenia.
In the year 2009. ISOC provided a Community Grant for the establishment of a regional community Internet center (grant manager, member of the ISOC AM, Margarita Solomonyan.) The grant lets to create a regional community Internet center in Vanadzor, the main city of the Lori region. The Center is successfully functioned, contributing to the penetration of the Internet into the region.
According to the NATO/ISOC grant in 2007 ISOC AM organized a seminar "Armenian National Research and Education Networks: Achievements, Problems and Solutions".
The ISOC provides the functioning of the Freenet.am domain, which provides the Internet to the general public, using ordinary telephone communication for Internet access. Freenet.am subscribers (www.freenet.am) receive e-mail and web space for their own web pages.
Representatives of the ISOC AM periodically took part in the INET conference in order to gain experience in managing the national domain. Many members of the society participated in international conferences. Several members of the society were trained on certification courses and received certificates of trainers in various disciplines.
Tday there is more than 34 thousand domains registered in Armenia. Currently, 25 domain registrars operate in Armenia in the AM zone. Practically all leading service providers in Armenia have the status of domain name registrars in the AM zone.
The ISOC AM is one of the founders of the ARMIX fund, whose goal is to create a national center for exchanging Internet traffic to facilitate the exchange of information between Armenian service providers, reduce the burden on international communication channels and ensure the autonomy of the Armenian segment of the Internet.
The ISOC AM is also a participant in the project to protect children from threats on the Internet, a 24-hour hotline for receiving and recording messages about malicious content.
Recently a monitoring group of the Armenian Internet was established in the ISOC AM, headed by G. Vahanyan. Its purpose is to monitor the Armenian Internet space with the aim of promoting the development of secure Internet content, deprived of information, propagandizing violence, racial and religious dislike, etc. The monitoring team analyzes web sites using modern network technologies, conducts a rating assessment of the citation, quality and relevance of the web resources, periodically publishes the results of a comparative rating analysis of media websites, educational institutions, government departments, etc. This work stimulates the development of Internet content in Armenian and promotes its quality, promotes competition in the development of e-democracy and e-governance, e-education and the publicity in the Armenian segment of the Internet and in the Internet community.